Educational

Security

The OSI Model’s Seven Layers Defined and Functions Explained

Summary The Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model has seven layers. This article describes and explains them, beginning with the ‘lowest’ in the hierarchy (the physical) and proceeding to the ‘highest’ (the application). The layers are stacked this way: Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical PHYSICAL LAYER The physical layer, the lowest layer of […]

TCP/IP Ports and Protocols

The port numbers in the range from 0 to 1023 are the well-known ports or system ports.[6] They are used by system processes that provide widely used types of network services. On Unix-like operating systems, a process must execute with superuser privileges to be able to bind a network socket to an IP address using […]

Internet Protocol (IP) for Beginners

The Internet Protocol (the IP in TCP/IP) makes the Internet possible. IP also makes it possible for attackers anywhere in the world to attempt to break into your systems and networks. Here’s how IP routing works, and some suggestions for gaining deeper understanding of IP. IP has two great features that contributed to its success […]

Understanding IP Addresses and Binary

by Corey Nachreiner, CISSP, Director of Security Strategy and Research Anyone who’s used a networked computer probably has a functional understanding of Internet Protocol addresses (referred to as IP for short). An IP is a numeric identifier that represents a computer or device on a network. Your computer’s IP is like your home’s mailing address. […]

What Is a Port? (and Why Should I Block It?)

by Scott Pinzon, updates by Corey Nachreiner When used in construction or engineering, the term “firewall” means what it seems to mean: a wall capable of withstanding fire. It evokes something impenetrable, like a sheet of steel or a brick wall. However, in computer networking the term “firewall” means something porous. Like the strainer a […]

Understanding IPv4 Subnetting (Part 1)

by Rik Farrow, updates by Corey Nachreiner [Editor’s note: If the difference between a bit and a byte stumps you, or if the term “IP addressing” seems foggy to you, you’ll understand and enjoy this article much more if you first read “Understanding IP Addresses and Binary.”] Sure, you’ve heard of subnets. But if a crazed […]

Understanding IPv4 Subnetting (Part 2)

by Rik Farrow and Scott Pinzon, with updates by Corey Nachreiner [Editor’s note: This article continues our attempt to explain the complex subject of subnetting in terms you can understand even if you’re not a rocket scientist. If these concepts are new to you, you’ll increase your comprehension by reading Corey Nachreiner’s prequel, “Understanding IP […]

Top Security Threat #1 – Advanced Malware

Survive the Epidemic of Advanced Evasive Malware Whether as old-fashioned virus attachments in email, trojans delivered through network attacks, or modern ransomware forced through drive-by download web attacks, malware has long been the bane of IT organizations. So what is advanced malware and how does it work? As the name suggests, malware is software designed […]

Top Security Threat #2 – Data Loss

Protect Your Most Sensitive Asset from Compromise Data is the life blood of your business. You can replace computers, re-install software and repair networks, but recovering from a major data loss is no simple task. What Causes Data Loss and How Big Is the Threat? Information security experts often talk about how to protect your […]

Top Security Threat #3 – Ransomware

Don’t Be the Next Victim of Ransomware Ransomware is an increasingly common method of attack for hackers against individuals, SMBs and enterprises alike. While the first incidents of ransomware were discovered in as early as 2005, the last three years have seen this type of threat explode in popularity and compromise millions of computers and […]

Cloud Computing

AWS amazon_web_services

AWS Solution Architect – Associate – A Web Series

I have been studying for the AWS Solution Architect – Associate Certification through Amazon Web Services for some time and now I am down to the project portion. Over the next few days I will be working on projects as listed below. I will be making posts available with the answers and screenshots of my […]

AWS amazon_web_services

Episode 1 – AWS Solution Architect – Associate

I have been studying for the AWS Solution Architect – Associate Certification through Amazon Web Services for some time and now I am down to the project portion. Over the next few days I will be working on projects as listed below. I will be making posts available with the answers and screenshots of my […]

AWS amazon_web_services

Episode 2 – AWS Solution Architect – Associate

I have been studying for the AWS Solution Architect – Associate Certification through Amazon Web Services for some time and now I am down to the project portion. Over the next few days I will be working on projects as listed below. I will be making posts available with the answers and screenshots of my work for everyone to see.

10 new AWS cloud services you never expected

From data scooping to facial recognition, Amazon’s latest additions give devs new, wide-ranging powers in the cloud By Peter Wayner | Follow | Contributing Editor, InfoWorld | Jan 23, 2017 3:00 AM PT In the beginning, life in the cloud was simple. Type in your credit card number and—voilà—you had root on a machine you […]

Networking 101

BGP

Networking 101: Understanding BGP Routing

BGP – Border Gateway Protocol can be critical for successful enterprise network administration. BGP – The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the routing protocol of the Internet, used to route traffic across the Internet. For that reason, it’s a pretty important protocol, and it can also be the hardest one to understand. From our overview […]

IPSec - Internet Security Protocol

IPSec – Internet Protocol Security

IPSec is one of the new buzz words these days in the networking security area. It’s becoming very popular and also a standard in most operating systems. Windows 2000 fully supports IPSec and that’s most probably where you are likely to find it. Routers these days also support IPSec to establish secure links and to...

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IPSec VPN - Let Me Explain

Understanding VPN IPSec – Let Me Show You.

IPSec VPN protocols objective is to provide security services for IP packets such as encrypting sensitive data, authentication, protection against replay and data confidentiality. As outlined in our IPSec protocol article, Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) and Authentication Header (AH) are the two IPSec security protocols used to provide these security services.  Analysing  the ESP and...

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